Instructions Of Interior Painting

Interior painting requires as careful preparation of surfaces as does exterior painting. The advent of odorless paints now makes it possible to paint any time of the year. Formerly, most interior painting in the home was done in the fall or spring, when it was possible to leave the windows open to ventilate the room. But open windows brought dust into the room to mar the finished painted surface.

A good interior paint job is often 50% preparation and 50% painting. Do not rush in preparing the surfaces in your eagerness to get at the brush or roller. If you do not prepare the surfaces properly, you’ll be back with the paint brush or roller in a few months.

In this section you will find the necessary information on the application of different types of paints on various interior wall, ceiling and floor materials.

Plaster

New dry plaster in good condition, which is to be finished with a paint other than water paint, should be given a coat of primer-sealer and allowed to dry thoroughly before being inspected for uniformity of appearance. Variations in gloss and color differences in the case of tinted primers indicate whether or not the whole surface has been completely sealed. If not, a second coat of primer-sealer should be applied. If only a few “suction spots” are apparent, a second coat over these areas may be sufficient.

A flat, semi-gloss, or high-gloss finish may be applied to the primed surface. For a flat finish, two coats of flat wall paint should follow the priming coat. For a semi-gloss finish, one coat of flat wall paint and one coat of semi-gloss paint should be applied to the primed surface. For a high-gloss finish, one coat of semi-gloss paint and one coat of high-gloss enamel should be used over the priming coat.

Before applying water paints of the calcimine type to new plastered walls they should be sized, using either a glue-water size or, if the plaster is dry, a thin varnish or primer-sealer.

Cold water paints of the casein type may be applied either directly to a plastered surface, or the surface may be first given a coat of primer-sealer to equalize uneven suction effects. The same is true of resin-emulsion paints, with the recommendations of the manufacturer of the product being given preference in case of doubt. Since resin-emulsion paints usually contain some oil in the binder, they should ordinarily be applied only to plaster which has dried thoroughly.

Texture wall paints may also be used on plaster surfaces. The advantages of this type of paint are that one coat economically produces a textured decoration and relieves the monotony of smooth flat paint. It also covers cracks or patches in the plaster more completely than ordinary wall paint. The disadvantages of texture wall paint are that they Collect dust and are difficult to restore to a smooth finish. These materials are available as water-or oil-based paints, are thicker than ordinary wall paints, and may be applied to wallboard as well as plaster to produce textured effects such as random, Spanish, mission, and multicolored.

Composition Wallboard

Composition wallboard usually presents no particular painting difficulties if the ordinary precautions are observed, such as making certain that the surface is dry and free from grease and oil. The painting procedure for wallboard is the same as for plaster; it requires a priming and sealing coat followed by whatever finishes coats are desired, or may be given one-coat flat or resin-emulsion type paint.

Wallpaper

Water-thinned paint may be applied to wallpaper that is well- bonded to the wall and does not contain dyes which may bleed into the paint. One thickness of wallpaper is preferable for paint application. Paints other than those of the water-thinned type may also be applied to wallpaper by following the directions given for painting plaster. However, wallpaper coated with such a paint is difficult to remove without injury to the plaster.

Wood Walls and Trim

New interior walls and wood trim should be smoothed with sand-paper and dusted before painting or varnishing. To preserve the grain of the wood, the surface may be rubbed with linseed oil, varnished or shellacked, and waxed. If an opaque finish is desired, semi-gloss paint thinned with 1 pint of turpen-tine per gallon of paint or the primer-sealer previously described for walls may be used as a priming coat on wood. One or two coats of semi-gloss paint should then be applied over the thoroughly dry prime coat, or if a full-gloss finish is desired, the last coat should be a high-gloss enamel.

Masonry Walls and Ceilings

Interior masonry walls and ceilings above grade may, in general, be painted in much the same manner as plaster surfaces. Here again, it is necessary to allow adequate time for the masonry to dry before applying paint and, in addition, attention should be given to the preparation of the surface. When decorating a wall containing Portland cement (concrete, for example), it is essential to take precautions against the attack of alkali. For this purpose, alkali-resistant primers such as rubber-base paints may be used when oil paints are to follow.

Cement-water paints are best suited for application to basement walls which are damp as a result of leakage or condensation. To apply these paints, the same procedure should be followed as is described here for painting exterior masonry walls.

Concrete Floors

Two general types of paints for concrete floors are varnish and rubber-base paint. Each has its limitations and the finish cannot be patched without the patched area showing through. Floor and deck enamel of the varnish type gives good service on concrete floors above grade where there is no moisture present.

Rubber-base paints, which dry to a hard semi-gloss finish, may be used on concrete floors below grade, providing the floor is not continually damp from seepage and condensation.

Paint should not be applied to a concrete basement floor until the concrete has aged for at least a year. The floor should be dry when painted, the best time for application being during the winter or early spring (assuming there is some heating apparatus in the basement), when the humidity in the basement is low. In general, three coats of paint are required on an unpainted floor, and the first coat should be thin to secure good penetration. After the paint is dry, it should be protected with a coat of floor wax.

In repainting concrete floors, where the existing paint has been waxed and is in good condition except for some worn areas, the surface should be scrubbed with cloths saturated with turpentine or petroleum spirits and rubbed with steel wool while wet, to remove all wax before repainting. If this is not done, the paint will not adhere and dry satisfactorily, if the old paint is badly worn, it should be removed by treating with a solution of 2 lbs. of caustic soda (household lye) to 1 gallon of hot water. This may be mopped on the surface and allowed to remain for 30 minutes after which the floor can be washed with hot water and scraped with a wide steel scraper. Another method of application is to spread a thin layer of sawdust, which has been soaked in caustic solution over the floor and allow it to stand overnight. The following morning, the floor can be washed with hot water and the paint scraped off. The surface should then be rinsed thoroughly with clean water.

If rubber-base paint has been used, the caustic soda treatment may not be effective and it may be necessary to use an organic solvent type of paint remover.

Caution: – When using caustic soda or lye, avoid splashing eyes, skin, and clothing.

Interior Metal

Interior metal, such as heating grilles, radiators, and exposed water pipes, should be painted to prevent rust and to make them as inconspicuous as possible. New metal should be cleaned of grease and dirt by washing with mineral spirits, and any rust should be removed by sanding, after which a metal primer should be applied. The finish coat may be either a flat wall paint or a semi-gloss enamel.

If you are not sure of the primer to use on metal, the paint dealer or manufacturer will give you this information, dependent on the type of metal to be painted.

Usually on exposed air ducts of galvanized metal a primer coat of zinc dust-zinc oxide paint is used, before the finish coat is applied.

The paints may be applied by brush or spray; the small spray attachment for vacuum cleaners is very convenient, especially for painting radiators.

Brass lighting fixtures and andirons may be polished and kept bright by coating with metal lacquers. The lacquers, held in cans under pressure, may be sprayed directly from the container. Old-fashioned or unattractive lighting fixtures may be painted with ceiling or wall paint to harmonize with the surrounding surfaces.

Special Surfaces

WHITEWASH

Whitewashes and lime paints must be thin when applied. In fact, best results will be obtained if the application is so thin that the surface to which it is applied may easily be seen through the film while it is wet. The coating will dry opaque, but two thin Coats will give better results than one thick coat.

A large whitewash brush is best for applying the wash. One should not attempt to brush out the coating, as in applying oil paint, but simply spread the whitewash on as evenly and quickly as possible.

The principal ingredient in whitewash is lime paste. A satisfactory paste can be made with hydrated lime, but better results are obtained by using quicklime paste that has been slaked with enough water to make it moderately stiff. The lime paste should be kept in a loosely covered container for at least several days. Eight gallons of stiff lime paste can be made by slaking 25 lbs. of quicklime in 10 gallons of water, or by soaking 50 lbs. of hydrated lime in 6 gallons of water. After soaking, the paste should be strained through a fine screen to remove lumps or foreign matter.

Whitewash can be made from various combinations of lime paste and other ingredients. The following two formulas are satisfactory.

The casein, which serves as the glue binder, should be soaked in 2 gallons of hot water until thoroughly softened, which should be approximately 2 hours. After dissolving the trisodium phosphate in 1 gallon of water it should be added to the casein, stirring the mixture until the casein dissolves. This solution should be mixed with the lime paste and 3 gallons of water.

The salt and alum should be dis-solved in 4 gallons of hot water, after which the molasses may be added to the mixture. The resulting clear solution is then added to the lime paste, stirred vigorously, and thinned with water to the desired consistency. This whitewash has a yellow tinge when first applied, but the color disappears in a few days leaving a white film.

Another satisfactory whitewash can be made by diluting a moderately heavy cold lime paste (about 33 lbs. of hydrated lime and 8 gallons of water) with 5 gallons of skim-milk.

The area covered by a gallon of whitewash depends upon the nature of the surface, but ordinarily a gallon will cover about 225 sq. ft. on wood, about 180 sq. ft. on brick, and about 270 sq. ft. on plaster. The formulas mentioned will make from 10 to 14 gallons of whitewash. If a smaller quantity is desired, the amount of each ingredient should be reduced proportionately.

STIPPLING

Whether you desire the effect of stippling (tiny paint dots) as a decorative effect, or if you have a wall which has an uneven surface and you feel you can hide the defect by stippling it, you may accomplish this result very simply.

For stippling you need a special brush; get one that is flat, and has short, stiff bristles.

The first step is to cover the surface with a coat of paint, using your regular paint brush, or spray, or roller. Then, while the surface is still wet, take the dry stipple brush and energetically with short strokes drive the ends or the bristles into the wet paint. Be sure not to brush across. The result will be clusters of dots. Every few minutes wipe the brush with a cloth, to keep the bristle ends clean and dry.

STENCILING

You may want designs on the walls, or perhaps even on floors and ceilings, in some of the rooms or hallway. You may buy or make your own stencils, which should be on heavy paper, stencil board, plastic, or metal. Avoid stencils made of lightweight paper which will get soaked when touched by wet paint. Your paint dealer will suggest the best paint for you to use, as it will depend a great deal on the surface over which you want to put the stenciled designs. Generally a heavy paint is used, so that it will not spread under the stencil while you are applying it.

The stencil must be held very firmly against the surface with one hand, and the stencil brush worked over it quickly with the other hand. Or, if you have an assistant, it is best for one person to keep the stencil steady, while the other does the painting. In removing the stencil, make sure you pick it up without smudging.

What You Need to Know Before Your Next Paint Job

Oil-Based vs. Water-Based Paint

When it comes to picking paint, selection begins with choosing between oil-based and water-based paints. For hundreds of years, people have been using oil-based paints for their impermeability and toughness.

Unlike water, oil does not dry by evaporation. It dries through a process of oxidation that converts the oil into a polymer chain. This means that the layer formed will be resilient and long lasting, and will withstand the degenerative effects of water and air longer than water-based paints. There are, however, several disadvantages to oil-based paints. First of all, oil paints take longer to dry than water-based paints, have a strong odor that lingers long after the paint has been applied, and contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

The paint pigment in oil paint is suspended in the solvent. VOCs are found in this solvent and are released as the paint is drying or being cured. VOCs are harmful to occupant health and the environment. Indoor air pollution has now been identified as being three times more harmful than pollution outdoors. This is mainly due to the release of VOCs by oil-based paints and other off-gassing interior VOC-containing finishes and furnishings. Government regulations regarding VOCs are becoming stricter; this may be one reason why oil-based paints are decreasing in popularity.

As opposed to oil-based paints, water-based paints (sometimes referred to as “latex paints” or “acrylic paints”) do not use solvents; the carrier for the pigment is primarily water. Latex paints have come a long way from when they were considered an inferior replacement for oil-based paints, and they’re now on the verge of dominating the market. The advantages of latex paints are many. The drying time is significantly shorter than oil-based paint, which requires up to 48 hours to dry, leaving the room unusable during this time. Latex paints also have a minimal odor and release significantly fewer VOCs during the drying process.

Because fewer or no VOCs are released, latex paint is significantly less harmful to building occupants. In addition, it requires less care to apply than oil-based paint and solvent, which are both highly flammable. Latex paint can also be thinned with water, unlike oil-based paint, which requires a special thinner.

Picking the Right Paint Finish

Beyond oil- and water-based categorization, paints can also be classified based on their function (e.g. primers, sealers, binders, finishing paints, etc.). They can also be classified according to the type of pigment used, like zinc, lead, and titanium (each has slightly different properties). But, by far, the most important classification of paint is the one that provides information about the type of finish.

With the traditional application of paint, the finish reveals how the paint reflects light once it’s dry. An exception is when special painting techniques (e.g. faux painting) are used, since these lend a completely different finish. Generally speaking, in commercial buildings, the finish depends solely on the type of paint used.

Certain finishes are more appropriate for certain rooms; this is because each finish has certain properties, apart from the way it looks, that distinguish it from the other finishes. Finish options include:

Matte. A matte finish reflects light poorly. It’s a rough finish that’s generally considered to be warm and comfortable. Matte finishes are not slippery; therefore, they don’t wash very well. For this reason, it’s not recommended to use a matte-finish paint on walls in rooms that have frequent visitors (e.g. a reception area or a conference room). The best places to use this finish are in executive offices or boardrooms: places where only a few people use the room, and the chances of dirtying the walls are low. Matte finish is great for hiding imperfections in the walls because highly reflective paints draw attention to imperfections by creating a crack in the uniform light reflection. Matte paints inherently avoid this problem.

Flat enamel. If you want to have the look of a matte finish in a bathroom or a café, consider paint with a flat-enamel finish. This paint holds the same properties as the matte finish, with one exception: It’s more washable. Unfortunately, paints with enamel finishes contain extremely strong chemicals and can exude an odor for several days.

Eggshell. The next paint on the curve of reflective properties-the eggshell finish-has a decent amount of sheen. If you can imagine looking at an eggshell in the light and seeing how the light bounces off of it, you’ll have a good idea about what this finish will look like. As expected, the eggshell finish is easier to clean because of its slight gloss.

Satin. A satin finish is glossier than an eggshell finish, and it’s even easier to keep clean. Due to their dirt resistance and ease of cleaning, the usual choices of location for satin finishes are halls and stairways. The finish gives a velvety shine to the surface and will not hide imperfections.

Semi-gloss. Semi-gloss paints have a high durability and a good amount of sheen. They are best used on surfaces like doors and trim. Due to their high water resistance and ease of cleaning, they are also an excellent choice for painting the walls of kitchens and bathrooms.

Gloss. At the high end of the reflective gradient are glossy paints, which are rarely chosen for interior walls due to their extreme shine-any imperfections will glaringly stand out. It’s best to use them when painting floors and trim; the finish is extremely durable.

Prepping the Surface

Painting a room is more than just taking out a brush and applying the paint. It’s a well-known fact that a good paint job is 80-percent preparation. This holds true whether you’re painting office walls or an entire building. Try painting a ceramic tile by directly applying the paint; you’ll find that the paint just doesn’t stay because the ceramic tiles are smooth and glossy, and don’t give the paint any grip. The role of the top layer of paint is primarily to provide color. It’s not made to have great adhesion or protection value. To get paint to stick to any surface, you need to use a primer. A primer is a layer of paint that’s applied before the topcoat. It’s designed to stick to almost anything. Once this is laid down and dried, the topcoat of paint is applied; this time, it’ll hold.

Having a good primer is, however, only part of the process. All surfaces need to be prepared to receive paint. The type of preparation depends on the surface. Wood needs to be planned and sandpapered. Depending on whether it’s hardwood or softwood, you may need to get rid of knots that will exude resin and spoil the paint job.

If the paint is being applied to metal, the most important step is removing any grease. This can be done with a liquid de-glosser. Rust must also be removed. Specific rust cleaners containing oxalic acid are made for this purpose. If pipes that contain hot water are being painted, then the paint needs to have special properties that enable it to withstand heat.

Applying the Paint

It’s almost always necessary to paint a surface with more than one coat, and there are several reasons for this. The main reason is to get the full color that you want. With just a single coat of paint, you might be able to see a glimpse of the original color underneath. Also, two coats are more durable. In addition, the second coat of paint allows you to cover up what may have been missed during the first pass. In general, the second coat of paint can extend the life of the paint job by a factor of three. As a rule of thumb, two coats of paint are accepted to be enough for a surface.

As mentioned in the discussion of oil and latex paints above, the time the paint takes to dry depends on the drying process. If you’re using latex paints, the drying process takes place by evaporation and is, therefore, much faster-maybe as quick as 1 hour. Oil-based paints, however, don’t dry in the conventional way: They are cured, and this can take several days. Since it’s necessary to wait for the first coat of paint to dry or cure before the second coat is applied, your paint job will either be hastened or delayed, depending on the type of paint being used.

Various surfaces require different painting techniques. Additionally, some surfaces take well to certain paints. Painting drywall surfaces is fairly straightforward. Drywall (also known as gypsum board, wallboard, or plasterboard) is a panel of gypsum surrounded or lined with paper. Drywall surfaces take well to water-based paints, and any finish will look nice, apart from a glossy finish.

Painting block surfaces, such as masonry or stone, is problematic because the surface is often uneven. Several pores and cracks make it impossible for a primer to do its job properly and fill them in; therefore, block filler, a paint-like material that smoothes out uneven or porous surfaces, is necessary. It’s also used on concrete blocks. While block filler isn’t very durable, it’s possible to use it as a finishing coat by itself. It’s recommended, though, that a more durable finish, like eggshell or semi-gloss paint, is applied after the block filler.

For metal surfaces, consider using latex paints. Due to the latest advances in paint manufacturing, water-based paints have now become a viable alternative to oil-based paints, and are often preferred due to their environmental friendliness. (In the past, water-based paints promoted the formation of rust on the metal through oxidation.) To paint metal that has been previously coated with an oil-based paint, the metal must be properly prepared by being de-glossed and coated with a latex-bonding primer. Glossy finishes, like satin or full-gloss paints, are typically used for painting metal surfaces due to their ability to protect against water and mold. Another good option for metallic surfaces is an epoxy coating.

Now you have some education on painting here are some tips for hiring a professional painting contractor.

To find the best service provider for your painting project, keep the following in mind when you’re interviewing prospective companies:

1) What kind of a reputation do they have? The best testament to the quality and or production of a service provider’s work is their work, and you’re not going to find a more accurate assessment of that than by talking to their former clients. If a company has a bad reputation among the people they’ve worked with in the past but they’re giving you a great price, steer clear. You may very well find yourself with poor workmanship and unanswered phone calls.

2) How much experience do they have with your particular painting project? All painting jobs are NOT created equal, and before you invite a company to come in and start the job you want to make sure they know what they’re doing. A service provider that’s specialized in landscaping and exterior remodels up until this point probably isn’t going to be the one you want to help you rip out your bathroom. (On the other hand, if you’re thinking about installing a fountain in your front hallway you’re in good hands.)

3) Are they willing to work with you? When it comes down to it, the bottom line is that this is your property. It should be the way you want it! A company that’s willing to take your money but give you very little input once the job is underway is going to frustrate you, aggravate themselves and leave you in a beautifully remodeled building or office that doesn’t look anything like you’d pictured it.

4) What are their scheduling policies? Many times a contractor will just tell you what you want to hear to win the job, then do something completely different once the contract is signed which all boils down to their reputation. What type of manpower do they have are their painters skilled craftsman or do they employ mostly college kids and or helpers? Most importantly you will want to make sure the painting contractor you hire is licensed, bonded, and insured.

5) Be sure that you know, to the last nail, what is going to be covered by each bid before you sign on the dotted line. The last thing you want to do is choose a company, then find yourself faced with a nasty surprise once work is actually underway.

The bottom line is that there are hundreds of service providers out there who are going to do a great job for your painting. All you have to do is have the patience and put out the effort to find them.

Jaworski Coatings, Inc,

41375 Oberlin Elyria Rd.

Eylria, Ohio 44035

Toll Free Office 1-866-87-2114